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timing, but the "content" of the pauses was totally mystifying. Even if we couldn't

find the content we had to find a specific dramatic justification for each pause. A

why, if not a what.

It was clear to all of us that Beckett was not writing psychologically fleshed-

out characters. These characters are truly that: characters: beings that exist only

within the definition given them by the text. Despite this there are certain

remnants of psychology that we could see. These were rudimentary features but


Hamm is tortured by the past and is obsessed with preventing the future

from occurring. He is deteriorating physically, emotionally and spiritually. He is a

writer of sorts, whose only activity outside of ordering Clov around is the

telling/creating of his"Chronicle."

Clov has no past. He is curious and interested but can retain nothing, except

pain. Despite this Clov remains relatively upbeat. Clov's ability to function is

almost entirely dependent upon Hamm's abuse. His primary function is waiting

upon Hamm. Clov is deteriorating but is not as far along as Hamm.

Nagg is Hamm's father. Nagg has hungers and desires. Nagg feels pain, and

longs for the past. Nagg resents Hamm. Nagg has deteriorated further than Hamm.

Nell is Hamm's mother. Nell longs for the past and Nell is on the verge of

death. Nell has deteriorated further than Nagg. Nell is dead.22

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