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evocative, we found little of it to be useful in a practical sense.
Yasunari Takahashi of Tokyo University. Prof. Takahashi is a leading translator of
Shakespeare and the only recognized translator of Beckett into Japanese. He carried
on a correspondence with Samuel Beckett for many years. I was fortunate enough
to have a number of conversations with Prof. Takahashi during the summer of
1996. He was very interested in Beckett's whimsy in the naming of the characters in
ENDGAME. There are several interpretations of this. For example Clov as a clove
on the ham that is Hamm and Hamm as the son of Noah. But the version that
Prof. Takahashi was most drawn to was the idea of Hamm as a hammer with Clov,
Nagg and Nell as nails that he is pounding at.20
dynamic to be central to the play.
that he wrote to Beckett asking about the so called "Alienation effect" that was the
rage in Europe at the time of the letter. Many people were describing Beckett using
this term and Prof. Takahashi asked Beckett what he thought. Beckett's answer has
never been far from my heart since I heard it:
It is my intention to create as deep, wide and dark a gulf as is
possible, between the stage and the audience...
...and then jump over it.21