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father-son relationship that has ceased to be anything but an exchange of abuse. But

all of the relationships in the play are colored to some degree by the parent-child

dynamic, ultimately leading to a metaphor for the God-human relationship.

Seen in the light of Beckett's actual experiences with this own family it

becomes clear that he is pointing to something in ENDGAME that goes beyond

simple hatred, or resentment. It is a distaste for biology itself. A horror of the

process of life and the procreation that initiates it. This is all augmented by the very

real and inescapable bond of the parent to the child. Hatred of the parent doesn't

erase the bond. Nor does hatred for God dissolve divinity. When Beckett was once

asked if he was a Christian he responded:

I have dispensed with the outward indications, but

as for the other...

Ejected from Trinity collage and for all practical purposes, Dublin society,

Beckett found a home in Paris France. He had been there as a Student and became

personal secretary to James Joyce. Joyce was more than merely an employer or a

Father-figure to Beckett. Beckett worshiped Joyce,6

and Joyce in turn was also very

fond of Beckett, and was providing not only tutelage but connections and exposure

that promised a bright future for Beckett. However, a unfortunate incident

involving Joyce's daughter,7caused a split between the two men that was never


Following the break with Joyce, Beckett's career went into a long period of

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